Zigbee is an IEEE 802.15.4-based specification for a suite of high-level communication protocols used to create personal area networks with small, low-power digital radios, such as for home automation, medical device data collection, and other low-power low-bandwidth needs, designed for small scale projects which need wireless connection. Therefore, Zigbee is a low-power, low data rate, and close proximity (personal area) wireless ad hoc network.

The technology defined by the Zigbee specification is intended to be simpler and less expensive than other wireless personal area networks (WPANs), such as Bluetooth or more general wireless networking such as Wi-Fi. Applications include wireless light switches, home energy monitors, traffic management systems, and other consumer and industrial equipment that requires short-range low-rate wireless data transfer.


1.Low-power: In the low-power standby mode, 2 AAA dry batteries can support 1 node to work for 6 to 24 months, or even longer.

2.Low cost: By drastically simplifying the protocol (less than 1/10 of Bluetooth), the requirements for communication controllers are reduced, and according to predictive analysis, measured by the 8051 8-bit microcontroller, the full-function master node requires 32KB code, the sub-function node is as little as 4KB code, and ZigBee is free of protocol royalties. The price per chip is about $2.

3.Low data rate: ZigBee operates at rates of 20 to 250 kbps and provides raw data throughput rates of 250 kbps (2.4 GHz), 40 kbps (915 MHz) and 20 kbps (868 MHz) respectively to meet the application needs of low-rate data transmission.

4.Close range: The transmission range is generally between 10 and 100m, and after increasing the transmission power, it can also be increased to 1 to 3km. This refers to the distance between neighboring nodes. If you relay through routing and inter-node communication, the transmission distance will be much farther.

5.Short latency: ZigBee's response speed is faster, generally only 15ms from sleep to working state, and only 30ms for node connections to enter the network, further saving power. In comparison, Bluetooth requires 3 to 10s and WiFi requires 3 s.

6.High capacity: ZigBee can adopt a star, flake and mesh network structure, with a master node managing several child nodes, up to a master node can manage 254 child nodes, and the master node can also be managed by the upper layer of network nodes, which can form a large network of up to 65,000 nodes.

7.High security: ZigBee offers three levels of security, including no security settings, the use of access control lists(Access Control List, ACL) to prevent unauthorized access to data, and symmetric passwords using the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES 128) for flexible determination of their security attributes.

8.License-free frequency bands. Use of Industrial Sciences Medical (ISM) Band, 915MHz (US), 868MHz (Europe), 2. 4GHz (Global), .

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